Belajar structure TOEFL: So, such & too

Dalam TOEFL ITP untuk soal written expression, posisi so, such dan too kadang dibalik-balik. Kadang so yang mestinya digunakan, justru malah such yang dimasukkan, begitupun untuk kata too. Secara umum, bisa dikatakan ke tiga kata ini memiliki makna sepadan yaitu begitu atau sangat. Olehnya, dalam belajar structure TOEFL, perlu mengetahui perbedaan so, such, dan too.

So dan such

Kata so merupakan adverb, sementara kata such ialah determiner. Olehnya, so diikuti dengan kata adjective/adjective phrase, sementara such diikuti dengan kata noun/noun phrase.

  • He is such a nice person.
  • He is so a nice person. (x)
  • Those cakes are so good.
  • Those cakes are such good. (x)
  • Those are such good cakes.
  • Those are so good cakes. (x)
  • a nice person (NP)
  • good (Adj)
  • good cakes (NP)

Kata so juga digunakan ketika ada noun yang sebelumnya diikuti kata much/many/little/few.

  • This city has so few doctors
  • This city has such few doctors. (x)
  • So many students came to the seminar. 
  • Such many students came to the seminar. (x)

Catatan: kata much/many/little/few hanya digunakan ketika ada noun setelahnya.

  • This assignment is so much hard. (x)
  • This assignment is so hard. 
Berikut beberapa contoh soal TOEFL ITP terkait so dan such
  • Settlers streamed into Connecticut River towns in so large numbers between 1765 and 1790 that they nearly doubled the population of Hampshire County, Massachusetts.

  • Mercury is so much close to the Sun that it is usually invisible in the glare of the Sun’s rays.

  • Many dinosaurs were so much heavy that they spent most of their lives in swamps and shallow lakes where water could support them.

So dan too

Posisiso juga kadang secara salah digantikan oleh too. Ke dua kata ini merupakan adverb, sehingga sama-sama diikuti dengan adjective. Contoh:

  • The cake is too sweet. (terlalu manis)
  • The cake is so sweet. (begitu manis)

Cara membedakan ke duanya ialah dengan melihat pola keterangan setelahnya. Contoh:

  • The cake is too sweet to be eaten.
  • The cake is so sweet that I cannot continue to eat it.
  • The cake is so sweet to be eaten. (x) (tooto)
  • The cake is too sweet that I cannot continue to eat it. (x) (sothat)

Kata too diikuti oleh to infinitive, sementara kata so diikuti oleh that clause.

Contoh soal ITP:
  • Pure flint is too hard and even-grained that it chips in smooth curved flakes.

  • Nitrogen and oxygen are too important that most living organisms cannot survive without these elements.

  • Some types of ferns resemble trees and some are too small that they look like moss.

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